About the Integrated SNP/CHC Model
Currently the PsychWriter Pro™ software classifies scores from the major tests of cognitive abilities, achievement, neuropsychological functions, and some behavioral rating scales into a conceptual framework called the Integrated SNP/CHC Model (Miller, 2013, Miller & Maricle, 2012, 2019, 2022). Miller introduced the first version of the School Neuropsychological Conceptual model in 2007 as a way of organizing school-age, cross-battery assessment data based upon the underlying principle neuropsychological constructs being assessed. The model was revised by Miller in 2013 with a further CHC theory integration. Subsequent refinement of the model has been referred to as the Integrated SNP/CHC Model.
The primary purposes of the Integrated SNP/CHC Model are:
- To facilitate clinical interpretation by providing clinicians an organizational framework for assessment data
- To strengthen the linkage between assessment and evidence-based interventions
- To provide a common frame of reference for evaluating the effects of neurodevelopmental disorders on neurocognitive processes, academic achievement, and social-emotional functioning (Miller & Maricle, 2022; Miller, Maricle, Bedford, & Gettman, 2022).
Rather than reporting the assessment results of a psychoeducational or neuropsychological evaluation in a traditional linear test-by-test fashion, PsychWriter Pro™ automatically organizes all assessment data into the Integrated SNP/CHC Model (the “Model”) classifications. The Model has different levels of classifications starting with broad classifications, which are further refined with second-order classifications, and in some cases further refined into third order classifications.
The broad classifications include basic sensorimotor capabilities; the cognitive processes of visuospatial, auditory, learning and memory, and executive functions; facilitators and inhibitors related to allocating and maintaining attention, working memory, and speed and efficiency of cognitive processing; acquired knowledge in the areas of acculturation knowledge, language, and reading, writing, and mathematics achievement; and social-emotional functioning.
For a more detailed and refined description of the Model see Miller and Maricle, 2019, 2022; however, a brief overview is provided here.
- Sensorimotor functions serve as the essential building blocks for all other higher order cognitive processes.
- Sensory functions include baseline assessments of vision, hearing, and touch.
- Motor functions include baseline assessments of fine and gross motor skills, visual-motor integration, visual scanning, and balance and coordination.
- The cognitive processes considered next in the Model are visuospatial and auditory processes.
- Visual-spatial skills are subdivided into the following areas: visual-spatial perception and visual spatial reasoning.
- Auditory processes are subdivided into the following areas: sound discrimination and auditory/phonological processing.
- Learning and Memory is dependent upon sensory-motor functions, attentional processes, visuospatial processing, and auditory processes. The Model conceptually divides learning and memory into four major classifications: rate of learning, immediate memory, long-term (delayed) memory, and associative memory and learning.
- Executive processes serve as the command-and-control center for the other cognitive processes. Executive functions are classified into the narrower classifications of cognitive flexibility, concept formation, problem solving, fluid reasoning and planning, response inhibition, qualitative behaviors, and behavioral and emotional regulation.
- In 2013, Miller introduced the concept of facilitators/inhibitors which influence higher-order cognitive processes and the attainment of acquired knowledge. The Model includes three broad classifications of facilitators/inhibitors: allocating and maintain attention, working memory, and speed, fluency and efficiency of cognitive processing.
- Attentional processes are subdivided into selective/focused attention, sustained attention, shifting attention, and attentional capacity components.
- Working memory is subdivided into verbal working memory and visual working memory.
- Speed, fluency, and efficiency of processing facilitators/inhibitors is subdivided into five, second order classifications: performance fluency, retrieval fluency, acquired knowledge fluency, the influence of fluency on performance accuracy, and qualitative behaviors that relate to speed and efficiency of processing.
- The Model refers to those skills that are learned over time as acquired knowledge. The Model has acquired knowledge broad classifications for acculturation knowledge, language abilities, and reading, writing and mathematics achievement. Each of these broad classifications are future classified into second and perhaps third order classifications based on the neurocognitive task demands.
- The final consideration that must be made in interpreting any assessment results with the Model is the contributions made by the student’s social-emotional, environmental, and cultural factors.
- Miller, D. C., & Maricle, D. E. (2022). The integrated SNP/CHC model. In D. C. Miller, D. E., Maricle, C. L. Bedford, & J. A. Gettman (Eds.). Best practices in school neuropsychology: Guidelines for effective practice, assessment, and evidence-based interventions – Second Edition (pp. 67-85). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Miller, D. C., Maricle, D. E., Bedford, C. L., & Gettman, J. A. (2022). Best practices in school neuropsychology: Guidelines for effective practices, assessment, and evidence-based intervention - Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Miller, D. C., & Maricle, D. E. (2019). Essentials of school neuropsychological assessment – Third Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Miller, D. C. (2013). Essentials of school neuropsychological assessment – Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Miller, D. C. (2007). Essentials of school neuropsychological assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.